Monday, December 18, 2017

Fortified breastmilk - is it still breastmilk? Should it be sold at a profit?

Click HERE for Baumslag's website and the full report.
These are some of the questions the esteemed Dr. Naomi Baumslag is asking. Along with colleagues Elisabeth Sterken and Glynnis Mileikowsky, Baumslag has released a brief report on the results of her survey on the sale of human milk in 33 countries, with data collected at the World Breastfeeding Conference in Johannesburg in December 2016.

Among the findings:

  • "... a pervasive lack of knowledge of the many issues around breastfeeding, Human Breast Milk (HBM) donation and commodification, and identified areas for education. 
  • less informed respondents requested more information and saw the benefits of being involved in the education of women so that they are not exploited and can better understand the need to help infants in need of donated HBM for their survival. 
  • most of the respondents felt that it was important to pay donor women if their milk was being sold at a profit by someone else, rather than donated. 
  • some respondents expressed the need to keep milk available for babies rather than for commercial purposes. 
  • cultural differences in attitudes to mothers selling HBM, but some field workers and researchers indicated that lactating women could use the cash for transport and to feed their families. 
  • many respondents felt that women undervalue their breastmilk and that HBM should not be sold.  ..."

Baumslag has a call for comments open - please visit her website to read the full results of the survey and for information on how to comment: Should human breast milk be for sale? 

Sunday, November 05, 2017

When doors close in Cambodia, windows open in Myanmar?

In March 2017, the Cambodia government banned the sale and export of breastmilk after the success of the Utah-based company Ambrosia, (see Human Milk News: Milk mongers sell mix of fear and doubt.) 

Ambrosia, co-founded by Utah-based Bronszon Woods, harvested the milk from Cambodia and sold it in the U.S. at a substantial markup. Woods, who first came to Cambodia as a Mormon missionary, paid his Cambodian milk providers to come into a clinic where they expressed milk and received a stipend of about $7-10/day according to media reports. Ambrosia said the payments provided a good and secure living for these families and insisted they only allowed pumping after six months of breastfeeding and restricted it to twice a day so there would still be milk for the family's own infant.

Ambrosia's human milk product was offered for sale in the U.S. at a substantial mark-up -- $45 for a 450 ml (15 oz) -- to everyone from body builders to U.S. families in need. Ambrosia claimed they were providing Cambodian families a safe way to earn a good living, but UNICEF urged the ban after concerns from the Cambodian health ministry that families were selling breastmilk and feeding formula to their own infants. UNICEF Cambodia's spokesperson Iman Morook said via an emailed statement that the practice was exploitive and that excess milk should remain in Cambodia for the many infants in that country who don't have access to adequate nutrition.
"UNICEF believes that breast milk banks should never be operated by exploiting vulnerable and poor women for profit and commercial purposes. Breast milk could be considered as human tissue, the same as blood, and as such its commercialization should be banned.”
The clampdown came in the midst of a controversy over a growing surrogacy market in the country, with reports of brokers approaching poor pregnant people with offers of $7-10,000 to buy their babies. One freelance reporter asked Ambrosia if they planned to tap into this surrogacy market, purchasing the milk from women who no longer had a baby to feed it to, and Ambrosia co-founder Ryan Newall told her "yes, we want to do that, the surrogacy market is booming," although he went on to note the government's plans to clamp down would allow his company to offer an alternative income stream where families could keep their children.

In condemning the export of this valuable resource, UNICEF Cambodia called for breast milk banks to provide adequate nutrition for Cambodia's own premature or orphaned infants. In February of 2017, the first milk bank in Southeast Asia to operate under international standards opened in Vietnam. A workshop was held to exchange knowledge about the possibility of opening milk banks in other ASEAN countries like Myanmar, Cambodia, the Philippines and Thailand.

Alive and Thrive, in a project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation as well as the governments of Canada and Ireland, has been working on a three-pronged approach to improve breastfeeding rates in Vietnam and has seen remarkable success. The country introduced new laws including adequate maternity leave, launched additional supports for families who are breastfeeding, banned predatory infant formula marketing and replaced it with messaging about the importance of exclusive breastfeeding, and the result was a remarkable turnaround, with exclusive breastfeeding rates up from 10 per cent in 2010 to 58 per cent in 2014. The program is scaling up to other countries in Southeast Asia including Cambodia. Milk banks are an important component of any program to improve the nutritional status of a nation and including them as part of the national policy environment to support breastfeeding is an important step.

Human Milk News periodically receives tips behind the scenes about new commercial entities entering the human milk trade, and even before Ambrosia's operations in Cambodia were shut down, we heard about several other startups planning to emulate the model, but so far nothing has materialized.* However, one copycat to watch is the startup LacNation, which is quietly trying to convince the Myanmar government and health authorities to let them set up a similar operation. In a listing on the Startup Compete website, LacNation describes its startup plan to to:
"Collect donor breast milk in Burma and sell it to American NICUs for a fraction of the price they currently pay. Use FDA approved processing and HMBANA donor screening standards to ensure donor milk quality is up to par with American standards. Pay our donors in Burma for their milk to improve their lives. Use portion of company profits to provide basic maternal and infant healthcare to donors."
The cost of not breastfeeding in Myanmar is high, and the country moved to improve its breastfeeding rates with a new law adopting the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 2014, and has extended maternity leave in the public sector. A report from UNICEF and Alive and Thrive in 2015 explored the economic toll of suboptimal breastfeeding rates, noting  policies and programs to save lives will provide a high return on investment for the country.

Hopefully Myanmar health authorities can learned from the experience of Cambodia and Vietnam and turn away from dubious, commercially exploitative milk bank schemes, and instead towards proven programs to support breastfeeding and improve health and wellbeing.

*Edited to add: I am remiss in not mentioning the tireless efforts of Marion Rice, who keeps tabs on new entrants into this field. She speaks about on the subject of "Biological Integrity, Ethics and Control over Human Milk." You can hear Marion interviewed by Gold Lactation's Fiona Lang Sharpe as part of their milk banking add-on lecture package aired earlier this year.

There has been a lot of global international coverage of the Ambrosia story since the Cambodian government issued its ban. The Phnom Pen Post has done a terrific job of covering the story all along. Here are links to their news coverage about Ambrosia:
Local breast milk for sale in the U.S. -- Phnom Pen Post, December 24, 2015
Breast milk mothers mourn trade -- Phnom Pen Post, March 22, 2017
Cambodia bans breast milk exports after international media coverage -- Phnom Pen Post, March 28, 2017

This independent in-depth investigation by Julie Smith in Truth Dig is also a must-read:
An example of capitalism literally milking the poor -- Truth Dig, April 19, 2017

Tuesday, October 24, 2017

Tell WHO that ALL human babies deserve human milk

Direct submissions can be sent to WHO at

The World Health Organization has opened a short comment period on the draft of a 2017 update to the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

In the section on supplementation when the infant's own milk is not available, the document recommends the use of donor human milk - but only for low-birth weight infants. If followed, this could change policies in place today in a number of facilities that make donor human milk available for healthy term and near term infants who have a medical need for supplementation.

The comment period closes TODAY, October 24th, 2017   has apparently been extended. More details coming, but if you didn't sign because it's tomorrow where you are, please do sign now, it's not too late!!

If you would like to tell the WHO that the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative should support donor milk, when available, for all babies with a medical need to be supplemented, please read the following letter and then use the form at the bottom to sign.

Note, your signature will be appended to this document for public viewing.

Please note, if you signed prior to the update date/time below and your signature does not appear here, email Jodine Chase as jchase at mediaworkswest dot com. Likely the signature form didn't completely capture your signature (there are a number with first names only.)

Update, Signatures added to 8:00 a.m. MDT
Next update noon .  Oct 25, MDT


Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD)
World Health Organization
Avenue Appia 20
1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland October, 2017

Re: Public consultation on the draft of the document: Protection, Promotion, and Support of Breastfeeding in Facilities Providing Maternity and Newborn Services: The Revised Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative 2017

Thank you for the opportunity to comment the revised Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI 2017).

Including donor human milk explicitly in the BFHI 2017 is an important revision that further aligns the BFHI with global breastfeeding policy framework and responds to the call at the World Breastfeeding Conference 2012 in Delhi to adopt a human rights approach to the protection, promotion, and support of infant and young child feeding at all levels.

Specifically, the WHO/UNICEF Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding (2003) states:
“For those few health situations where infants cannot, or should not, be breastfed, the choice of the best alternative – expressed breast milk from an infant’s own mother, breast milk from a healthy wet-nurse or a human-milk bank, or a breast-milk substitute fed with a cup, which is a safer method than a feeding bottle and teat – depends on individual circumstances.”

and the Convention of the Rights of the Child, Article 24 refers to the rights of all children:
"to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health…”

In the draft BFHI 2017, the specific reference to donor human milk in Section 2.1.4 Supplementation needs to be broadened to be fully aligned with the Global Strategy, the CRC, and other instruments and policies that support the right of the child to adequate nutrition. By referencing donor milk as being appropriate for low-birth-weight infants only, the BFHI 2017 could erode other important guidance and policies where donor milk, when available, is recommended as an option for all infants in need. Numerous policies and guidances position donor human milk as the next best option for infants, ahead of infant formula (Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2017), Canadian Pediatric Society (2010), Health Canada (2012), (PATH (2013).) For example, the Emergency Nutrition Network Infant Feeding in Emergencies Core Group’s new Operational Guidance on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies Version 3.0 (2017) states:
“Where an infant is not breastfed by his/her mother, quickly explore, in priority order, the viability of relactation, wet nursing and donor human milk, informed by cultural context, current acceptability to mothers and service availability.

The undersigned request that the first sentence in Section 2.1.4, Paragraph 5 be amended to read:

“Infants, especially those with very low birth weight, who cannot be fed their own milk should be fed donor human milk (50, 51)....”

Thank you for this opportunity to provide comment the draft BFHI 2017.


Jodine Chase Human Milk News Sarah E. DeYoung SafelyFed USA Sarah Smith

Natalie Barnes Breastfeeding Matters, South Vancouver Island

Krystina Langston
President, Breastfeeding Action Committee of Edmonton

Layla Mairleitner

Martha Paynter

Jill DeLorenzo

Kirsten Goa

Melissa Bartick MD

Cambridge Health Alliance and Harvard Medical School

Dr. Angie Bond
Arizona State University

Ilse Padilla

Jen Peddlesden

Judith Dyck

Jennifer Iwata
La Leche League Canada - Director on the Board  

Karen Bishop

Magdalena Whoolery
La Leche League

Katherine Teske
Leader, La Leche League

Helen Gray

Kerri Grummett
Canadian citizen

Elizabeth C Brooks JD IBCLC FILCA
private practice IBCLC, lactation educator, public health advocate

Hong Le Betibuti

Juanita Jauer Steichen

Dr. Zarya Rubin MD
Director, Latched On MD

Lauren Wong
Senior neonatal sister, NHS

Renae Haynes
Warrnambool breastfeeding centre

Naomi Hambleton IBCLC

A2Z Lactation

Dr. Stefanie Rosin

Eric Braul Jenna Richards
The Family Centre Perth

Susan E Burger PhD MHS IBCLC
Sole Proprietor, Lactescence, NYC Susan Howard RN MSN IBCLC
Owner Arlington Lactation

Stephanie Sosnowski IBCLC
Birth and Breastfeeding Education and Support

Elida Silva IBCLC

Orla Olivieri

Ashley Heatherly CLC
Whole Mothering Center

Julia Mio
La Leche League Canada, Leader

Mari Manger, Independent Nutritionist, PhD

Camilla Aviss RN IBCLC

Adele McHenry-Koenen

Caroline Smith
Cone Health

Michele Karver

Meghin Hynson CLC

Della Dennis
The human family

AJ Cecil-Starlin CLC
North Omaha Breastfeeding Advisory Team

Danielle Saxon

Colleen Emary
Independent, Public Health Nutritionist

Jaimie Zaki

Molly Frizzell

Samantha King
Australian Breastfeeding Information Hub

Associate Professor Karleen Gribble

Samantha Soh

Pam Martin

Justine Hirsch
La Leche League leader

Peter Martin

Jared Martin

Jennifer Martin

MaryAnn Joseph RN IBCLC

Rilla Marshall

Lynnette Hudgens
La Leche League of Pensacola

Kathleen Rolfe'

Sondra Aresty
Postpartum Doula, Gentle Hands Doula

Demi Lucas

Kaitlynn Antonenko

Margaret Bennet-Alder

George Kent
University of Hawaii (Emeritus)

Natalie Millar
Senior Clinical Dietitian,
Regina General Hospital, Regina Qu’Appelle Health Region

Laura Watt
La Leche League Canada
(Kingston ON)

Melanie MacDonald

Ruth McAllister
La Leche League

Kellie Gearlds RN IBCLC

Beth Paynter

Stefanie Kalmakoff

Sabrina Miller Hardin Memorial Hospital IBCLC Moon Afrykayn Aku Breastfeeding Mothers Unite Donna Basaldua Marion Public Health Kim Moss-Allen Jennifer Welch International Board Certified Lactation Consultant Lindsey Schiessler Noelle Polack Pinay Doulas Collective andrea schlueter Breastfeeding Peer Helper Linda Anderegg Nurse Clinician/IBCLC, Elmhurst Hospital

Laura Graham, M.S. Kathleen Anderson

Rachelle Lesteshen
Breastfeeding USA Counselor

Erin Fair
Director of the Volunteer Doula Program

Sharon Tsui
Natural Parenting Network

Carlee Robbins

Katie McNiven Gladman, Registered Midwife IBCLC

Liz Langthorn

Beth Lichy

Sarah King

Lindsey LaForte
LLL Leader

Shelley Halloran
Breastfeeding USA

Erin Dillon

La Leche League Leader

Amanda Yohn
Leader, La Leche League-USA; Birth Doula-Independent practice

Christine Staricka IBCLC
Baby Cafe Bakersfield

Sarah Boutin

Sarah Murnane
Australian Breastfeeding Project

Melanie Myers IBCLC

Carol Kelley
Breastfeeding USA Counselor

Cassadee Scollon
Mother of 3 and 3 x milk donor to healthy full term babies whose mother wanted my milk not formula

Emily Wright

Tova Ovits IBCLC

Jessica Ceniceros

Rachael Stratton CLC

Norma Escobar
Lactation Consultant

Melanie Bast

Olivia Valentine, RN

Elyssa Darke

Denise Ives, Breastfeeding Counsellor (DipHE)
The Breast Room

Lauren Barlow

Kay Whitby, RN

Rebecca Guy

Kristy Newnham

Milc Melbourne

Aileen Uy Breastfeeding Pinays

Pamela Hendrix

Schayne George

Alice Giltrow

Tanya Smith
Serenity Breastfeeding Support LLC, Owner/IBCLC, private practice

Rachel Thomson, Registered Nurse

Rachel Leitman

Nisa Briggs-Kelly

Lucy Friars

Penny Reimers
Human Milk Banking Association, South Africa

Belinda Delardes

Jennifer Gorton, Sonographer

Katie Miran
Carole Dobrich

Laura Delmonico Nationwide Nurse-In

Julie Audette Mother

Rebekah Sullivan

Ruth Brodbeck RM IBCLC LLL

Celeste Vieira-Miller

Nicole LaForge

Kathleen Kelly RN RM

Helga Wandel

Ellen Kamman IBCLC

Audrey Trenholme

Eve O'Shea

Rosie Macdonald

Evelina Fisher

Caroline Mugavin

Anna Saxman RN IBCLC

Regina KeoghOur Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin 

Emma Scriven

Patricia Vanier

Victoria Honar IBCLC
Breastfeeding in Bahrain

Sarah Ortegon Cabrera

Kat M-L 

Jennifer James IBCLC

Clare Davidson

Maddie McMahon, Breastfeeding Counsellor, Doula

Charity Catlin, Licensed Midwife, CPM 

Eva Doula

Linda Freia Erbe, Doula

Eleanor Gates
BFHI Coordinator, Waitemata DHB, New Zealand

Bridget Supple
Seeding Baby’s Microbiome

Shaughn Leach, Midwife, IBCLC 

Cat Owens

Camilla Winter-Moore, Doula

Lisa Casson
Birth Roots

Claire Hirsch

Dr. Naomi Park

Joanne Allan
Australian Breastfeeding Association

Anna Shelton

Kalindi Black
NCT Breastfeeding Counsellor and DUK Postnatal Doula

Donna McParland
Mother, parent educator, doula, baby carrying consultant and breastfeeding peer supporter

Loraine Hamm
Speech Language Therapist/IBCLC

Roger Godfrey

Sharon Knorr

Rosie Greenwood
NHS Derbyshire

Lucy Leonard

Becky Young

Lucy Leonard

Bridget Muir

Wendy Green

Amy Barron Smolinski

Executive Director, Mom2Mom Global

Kelly JonesMother

Claire Davies

Gonneke van Veldhuizen-Staas 
Eurolac Lactatiekunde, owner, lactation consultant

Ria de Boer
IBCLC lactatiekundige Kraamzorg de Waarden

Megan Stephenson
Breastfeeding Counsellor, NCT

Rebeca Schütz

Leata Davoine

Zoë Stijnen

Daniela Spanos

Caoimhe Whelan 

Lisa Parsons

Steve Coe

Jude Soames

Cecilia Tomori, PhD

Justine Railton 

Karen Peters

Anne Sleven

Laura SwannThe Holistic Doula

Floor Kulker

Alice Gardiner

Mel Kelly

Lenshina Hines

Secretary, Y Cwtch Llaeth - Newcastle Emlyn Breastfeeding Support Group

Maureen Minchin, Author Milk Matters: infant feeding and immune disorder
Milk Matters, PTY Ltd

Jenny YamagataWomen`s Oasis for Maternal Wellness and Birth

Marage Liliane

Sally Light

Nina BerryAustralian Breastfeeding Association; University of Sydney

Dr Jo Dagustun, UK

Aurora Legge

Charlotte Dent

Susan D NiedzielskiMohawk Valley Breastfeeding Network 

Andrea DeLarm
Breastfeeding USA Counselor

Marie Robinson

Paola ban der staak
As shifaa - independent midwife

Kelli Betters

Joy Schloemer

Jennifer Kaczynski IBCLC 

Julie Larose

Carolyn Siobhan Wilson
La Leche League Canada Leader

Lenore Goldfarb
Health e-Learning-IIHL/Step 2 Education

Helen Johnson
Antenatal Educator

Sarah Bowman

Dawn Lamuth-Higgins
Ligonier La Leche League

Fran Rolfe

Olive Edwards
Olive Branch Therapies

Nicole Lord

Fenda Louisaire RN IBCLC

Corinne Hurndell

Cristel van Prooijen

Laurel WilsonChildbirth and Postpartum Professionals Association, Senior Advisor

Ann Davison
Northampton General Hospital

Nikki MatherDoula and Breastfeeding counsellor

Sophie Brayley
Jeretha McKinley 

Christina Feminella

Lisette Pothoven

Sigrid van Hamburg

Leigh Anne O'Connor

Selma Alves

Anne-Marie Jude

Dania DeLoneMilkworks

Dana Patti

Jennifer ReinhardtLa Leche League USA

Rebekka HenriksenLa Leche League Leader Regina
Independent Consultant 

Ginny Kooyman

Heidi Akkers

Julia Irvine 

Elizabeth Davis 

Amy Laskey, Registered Dietician

Emma Woockman

Kyla Milne

Rowan Smith

Laraine Lockhart BormanMothers Milk Bank, Colorado

Nicole Shirazee 

Hope JenkinsonLa Leche League Leader

Mary Lou Moramarco IBCLC

Sarah Allison

Kendra Owen 

Barbara Hardin RN IBCLC
The Mother's Milk Company

Sara Shepherd
LLL Leader and IBCLC

Deirdre Wells

Robyn P
University of Saskatchewan Nutrition Student

Avital Kline

Shaniee R Green
Coalition of Oklahoma Breastfeeding Advocates - Treasurer

Linda Good IBCLC

Lynn Jurgens Dralle

Jen Kosakowski

E. Kalkman-Zwart

Darlene ArchibaldLa Leche League Canada Leader

Sandra Wesley

Rosa Villalpando

Becky DrevetsIntegris Health Edmond Lactation Consultant

Allison Haye
Allison Hayek Birth Services

-->Anna Le Grange IBCLC

-->Olivia Mayer RD CSP IBCLC

-->Ariel Patrick

-->Brenda Walsh

-->Jessica Kratzer

-->Lexi Hopkins

-->Virginia McClary CLD LE
-->Redeemed Birth Services 

-->Taylor Scarborough

-->Kimela Budlong

-->Ani Pendergast

-->Philippa Howard

-->Katie Marsh

-->Claire Barnett
-->Breastfeeding Counselor, Breastfeeding USA; and mother who supplemented with donor milk
 Gloria Thai, Lactation Specialist

-->Megan Bifulco
-->La Leche League Vineland NJ 

-->Kymberly Norrick
-->FlourishConnect and La Leche League

-->Lana Lonseth
-->IBCLC, La Leche League Leader

-->Christy Vergara IBCLC

-->Wendy Bell
-->Snugabell Mom & Baby Gear, Founder & CEO 

-->Lou-Ellen MacDonald, PA-C
-->Retired IBCLC, LLL Leader

-->Jaylene Rosales IBCLC

-->Roxanna Farnsworth IBCLC

-->Bobbie Evonne Davison

-->Melissa Laidlaw

-->Pamea BudlongCitizen

-->Mel Neal
-->La Leche League Canada, Chair

-->R. Verwer

-->Norma Ritter IBCLC RLC
-->Breastfeeding Matters in the Capital Region (NY) 
-->Patty Jacobs 
-->Breastfeeding USA Counselor 

-->Jennifer Warrick

-->Anna Mroczek
-->Upstate University Hospital

-->Susan Jacoby, IBCLCWIC

-->Olga Horsman

-->Ceit Blue

-->Lissette Minges
-->Dragonfly Village, Founder/Owner

-->Michelle Reetz

-->Marianne Vakiener
-->La Leche League

-->Avni Trivedi

-->Lena Ostroff

-->Heather Owen
-->BC, Breastfeeding USA

-->Kimberly Daniels
-->LLLC Leader

-->Alexis Adams

-->Kasandra Raux
-->Parent Partner, Southside Hospital, Northwell Health


-->Jill Cunningham

-->Emma Whittlestone-Port

-->Erma van Dijk
-->Praktijk landaya

-->Suzanne Schindler

-->Glee Huntsman

-->Ashley Starks

-->Dorothy Kane IBCLC

-->Rosie Foulk

-->Morgan Irvine  -->-->
-->Nikola Milevski
-->Ruth Harrison
-->NCT Breastfeeding Counsellor

-->Andrea Taylor

-->Meyke Spoel

-->Kelly Durbin
-->Owner, Birth educator and Breastfeeding Counselor at The MOMI Method

-->Alexandra Powers

-->Sally Hammell

-->Sara Hunter
-->MAMS Director

-->Hayley Bell

-->Jayne Lyddiard

-->Pardee Henderson MPH IBCLC
-->Patricia Molinari

-->Jennifer Kugler

-->Abaigeal Pilling, RN

-->Debbie BuckinghamMother

-->Donna Brooks
-->Vidant Medical Center IBCLC

-->Sarah Blunkosky
-->LLL USA Leader, LLL Common Wealth

-->Hilary Johnston
-->Hilary Johnston, Leader, La Leche League Canada Ottawa South East

-->Trish Toompuu
-->Latch Lactation Consulting

-->Jacqueline Kirkland

-->Iona Macnab BA(Hons) LLB IBCLC
-->iLactation Ltd

-->Kait Prendergast

-->Rebecca Welcome

-->Marjorie VeraIBCLC, La Leche League Leader

Marion Rice


Arnold, L. D. (2006). Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue. International Breastfeeding Journal, 1, 26.

Brady, M. (October, 2012). Breastfeeding is a human right. What does that mean?, Baby Milk Action Archive Site, Retrieved from,

JH Kim, S Unger; (2016). Canadian Paediatric Society, Nutrition and Gastroenterology Committee, Position statement on human milk banking, Paediatr Child Health 2010;15(9):595-8 Retrieved from:

Health Canada, (2012) Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants: Recommendations from Birth to Six Months, A joint statement of Health Canada, Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and Breastfeeding Committee for Canada, Retrieved from:

IFE Core Group - Operational Guidance on Infant & Young Child Feeding in Emergencies - V3

Kellems, A., Harrel, C., Omage, S., Gregory, C., Rosen-Carole, C., Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2017) ABM clinical protocol #3: Supplementary feedings in the healthy term breastfed neonate, revised 2017, Breastfeeding Medicine, 1-3, DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2017.29038.ajk

Kent, G. (2006). Child feeding and human rights. International Breastfeeding Journal, 1, 27.

PATH. Strengthening Human Milk Banking: A Global Implementation Framework. Version 1.1. Seattle, Washington, USA: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenges initiative, PATH; 2013. Retrieved from:

Taylor, E.C., Labbok, M. H., (2014.) (Donor human milk access and use in the United States: Findings and recommendations, Carolina Global Breastfeeding Institute, Retrieved from:

World Health Organization: Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding 2003 , Retrieved from: